Introduction on Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD)
The convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) is one of the conventions derive directly from the 1992 Earth Summit together with United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) and United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Each instrument represents a way of contributing to the sustainable development goals of Agenda 21. These three conventions are intrinsically linked, operating in the same ecosystems and addressing interdependent issues. The Conferences of the Parties (COP) have been organized to enhance synergy and reduce duplication of activities. The Conventions established a Joint Liaison Group as an informal forum for exchanging information, exploring opportunities for synergistic activities and increasing coordination in August 2001.
The main objectives of the CBD are; 1. the conservation of biological diversity, 2. the sustainable use of its components, and 3. the fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising from commercial and other utilization of genetic resources. The agreement covers all ecosystems, species, and genetic resources. Please go to the link for further information.
The Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety to the Convention on Biological Diversity is an international agreement which aims to ensure the safe handling, transport and use of living modified organisms (LMOs) resulting from modern biotechnology that may have adverse effects on biological diversity, taking also into account risks to human health. It was adopted on 29 January 2000 and entered into force on 11 September 2003.
The Nagoya Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources and the Fair and Equitable Sharing of Benefits Arising from their Utilization to the Convention on Biological Diversity is an international agreement which aims at sharing the benefits arising from the utilization of genetic resources in a fair and equitable way. It entered into force on 12 October 2014, 90 days after the date of deposit of the fiftieth instrument of ratification.